Manifold & Types

A manifold is an accessory system of piping that serve to divide a flow into several parts, so as to combine several flow into one. In oil and gas industries, there are several types of manifold used to divide fluid into different part. We have below 6 different types of manifold used but that doesn’t guarantee that this is the only types available. We have up-to 16 types but for the mean time we will only discuss the most commonly used types, later we will add the rest of other type of manifold.

This manifolds are designed to receive drilling mud discharge from mud pump and then delivered to downhole through pump,combination manifolds and high pressure stand pipes.

These are manifold used to carry out pressure control in oil and gas well. When a heavy drilling fluid is needed to pump into the well for bottom hole pressure balance and for releasing of bottom hole pressure, a Kill manifold is used to balance bottom hole pressure so that well kick and blowout can be prevented. Another important uses of a kill manifold is injection. A kill manifold is used for injecting water to wash off the well and also for injecting extinguishing agent. In this case, by using blow down lines connected to the kill manifold, the increasing well head pressure also can be released directly for bottom hole pressure release, or water and extinguishing agent can be injected into the well by means of the kill manifold only allow injection of kill fluid or other fluids into the wellbore through themselves, but do not allow any back flow so as to perform the kill operation or other operations.

Kill Manifold Assembly, Structure and Components

The kill manifold consists of check valves, gate valves, pressure gauges and pipelines. The one end of the kill manifold is connected to the drilling spool and the other end is connected to the pump. The kill manifold and choke manifold are both designed to AP 16C and can be used together. The kill manifold is available from 14MPa, 21Mpa, 35MPa and 70MPa pressure rating.

Operational Requirement

  • Working pressure of all pipelines, gate valves and check valves shall be compatible with that of the BOP stack used.
  • The kill manifold is not intended to be used as common lines for pouring drilling fluid.

Choke manifold is a necessary and important device on the rig to control the well kick successfully and execute the pressure control technology on oil/gas well in the course of drilling. This device is adopted to execute new drilling well technique of balance pressure, which prevent the pollution of oil layer, improve the speed of drilling and control blowout effectively. One end of the device is connected with the side flange of BOP spool. When the BOP closes, its can control the finite pressure from casing by adjusting the choke valve's opening so that balance drilling can work under minimum pressure difference. In summary, these are the reason why choke manifold are used.

Because its releases pressure through choke valves to enable soft closing and protect the wellhead from blowing down.

It is used for controlling casing pressure.

To keep wellbore pressure balance to avoid overflowing and prevent wells from blowing out.

Choke Manifold Assembly, Structure and Components
These device consists of choke valve, gate valve, pipeline, fittings and pressure gauge, etc.

Specification

Choke manifold are specify and designed based on the pressure level according to the requirements of the customers. i.e, 2,000psi, 3,000psi, 5,000psi, 10,000psi, 15,000psi.

Operational Requirement

  • All the working pressure parts in choke manifold should matched with the working pressure of the BOP stack used.
  • Choke manifold should be installed at the place where operator approach is conveniently. Pressure test should be conducted as installation while the sealing test pressure should equal to the rated working pressure.
  • Pipeline should be smooth and straight as possible, the corner of the pipeline should be made of 120 degree shaped forged steel bent pipe, which should have adequately large bore.
  • Working pressure gauge should be installed.

During winter, the choke manifold should be able to work under low temperature condition.

These manifolds as the name implies, consists of various type of manifold all in one equipment which can provide various different purpose at the same time. These manifold consists of:

    • Drilling fluid manifold such as pump combination manifold, standpipe, manifold and ground manifold.
    • Well control manifold such as choke manifold, blowout prevention manifold and kill manifold.
    • Cement manifold such as discharge manifold, test manifold and High and low pressure combination manifold
    • Wellhead control head, bit manifold, Wax manifold, distribution and discharge manifolds, flow nipple manifolds, oil and air dividing manifold.

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